What is a type 1 diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disease, which also known as insulin dependent or juvenile diabetes. In this type of diabetes immune system itself destroys the cells in pancreas, which are essential for producing insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps to convert glucose from food into energy and helps to balance the blood sugar level.
Due to lack of this hormone ( insulin ), glucose starts storing in bloodstreams which results in rise of blood sugar level. So, anybody with this type of diabetes needs daily insulin injection to convert glucose into energy.
Different factors, such as viruses or genetics may be responsible for developing type 1 diabetes. Although type 1 diabetes can be occur in adults, but typically develops in childhood or teens. There is no cure for type 1 diabetes, but it can be manage by changing lifestyle such as proper diet, exercise etc.
What are the symptoms for type 1 diabetes?
The symptoms of diabetes may include :
Extreme Hunger : Insulin is very important in our body.Due to lack of insulin, glucose cannot be use as energy by the body. The cells will not receive the energy they need from the glucose and body will start eating more despite having just eaten.
Blurred vision : Lack of insulin can result in continues high blood sugar level, which can cause fluid to be pulled from body’s tissues, including lenses of the eyes. This process can change’s the size of lens and affects its ability to focus light properly on retina.
Frequent urination : As we know that in type 1 diabetes pancreas is not able to produce insulin to convert glucose into energy. So, the glucose starts storing in the bloodstreams and urination is the only way to remove this excess amount of glucose collected in bloodstreams. That’s why people with diabetes are more frequent to urination.
Slow-healing wounds : The process of healing wounds depends on the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the site of wounds. But due to high blood sugar level, nerves and blood vessels get damage, which makes a barrier to the supply of oxygen and nutrients to site of wounds. That’s why wounds healing are slow in diabetic people.
Unexplained weight loss : Despite extreme hunger, people with diabetes may also face loss in weight. This happens due to the lack of calories consumption, as the number of calories loss through urination.
Increased thirst : The process of removing glucose through urination makes body dehydrated, which results increased in thirst.
Fatigue : When the body is not able to use glucose which is the main source of energy in our body, then our body starts feeling tired and weakened.
What are the causes of type 1 diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes is the condition in which pancreas is not able produce insulin, which results rise in blood sugar level. Here are some factors responsible for the cause of type 1 diabetes :
Autoimmune factors : In people with type 1 diabetes, immune system itself destroys the cells present in pancreas that are responsible for producing insulin. This results glucose start storing in bloodstreams and cause rise in blood sugar level.
Genetics : Genetics can be responsible for developing type 1 diabetes, parents having this type of diabetes increases the chance of having diabetes to their child too.
Environmental factors : People with pre-diabetic have more chance of developing type 1 diabetes due to certain environmental factors such as viruses or toxins.
Autoimmune disorders : Autoimmune disorder such as celiac disease and thyroid disease, may increase the risk of developing type 1 diabetes. It’s very important for people with autoimmune disorder to be aware of their autoimmune disorder and should talk to their doctor.
Age : Type 1 diabetes can be seen in early childhood or young adults and 10 – 14 is the peak age. But, type 1 diabetes can be develop at any age.
At what point do individuals first experience symptoms of type 1 diabetes?
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can be develop at any age, but in most cases it had been seen in early childhood or young adults. Here are the symptoms caused by high blood sugar level, when the body unable to use glucose for energy due to lack of insulin.
. Frequent Urination
. Blurred vision
. Increased hunger
. Slow healing
. Skin infections
Here are the symptoms caused by low blood sugar level :
. Rapid Heartbeat
. Blurred Vision
If you have any symptoms related to type 1 diabetes, then talk to your doctor as soon possible before the condition become more worse such as ketoacidosis.
What are the difference between symptoms of type 1 diabetes vs type 2 diabetes ?
Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are two different types of diabetes, having almost similar symptoms. Here are some symptoms based on the two different types of diabetes :
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes :
- In this type of diabetes immune system itself destroys cells in pancreas which are responsible for producing insulin, due to lack of this hormone ( insulin ), glucose starts storing in bloodstreams which results in rise of blood sugar level.
- It develops very fast after first experience of symptoms, usually within a few days or weeks.
- It can occur at any age, but more common in children and young adults.
- Often occurs with ketones in urine and high blood sugar level.
- Symptoms of type 1 diabetes include frequent urination, blurred vision, weigh loss, hunger and thirst.
Symptoms of type 2 diabetes :
- In this type of diabetes pancreas able to produce insulin, but may not enough to meet body requirement or the body in not able to use it.
- It develops slowly after first experience of symptoms, usually over several years.
- It can occur in children’s and adolescents, but more common in adults.
- Often occurs with high blood sugar level and ketones in urine are rare.
- Symptoms of type 2 diabetes include slow healing of cuts, blurred vision, frequent urination, numbness in hands.
It is not important that all diabetic people have these symptoms, but if anybody having these type of symptoms then it is very important to talk with your doctor.
What are the serious complications of type 1 diabetes?
Nerve Damage : Due to the high blood sugar level small blood vessels can be damaged that supply oxygen and nutrients to the nerves, this condition is known as diabetic neuropathy. This diabetic neuropathy condition can be occurred in any part of body, but especially in legs. This results in numbness, tingling and pain in legs or feet. In some cases it affect the nerves that controls various body functions such as movement, sensation etc.
Diabetic ketoacidosis : It is a condition which occurs when body not able to produce enough insulin that helps to convert glucose into energy. Then, body starts breaking down fat for energy instead of insulin. This can be result in production of ketones which can cause blood to become acidic. Its symptoms may include vomiting, confusion and increase in breathing.
Eye damage : Lack of insulin can result in continues high blood sugar level, which can cause fluid to be pulled from body’s tissues, including lenses of the eyes. This process can change’s the size of lens and affects it’s ability to focus light properly on retina.
Kidney damage : This occurs due to the damage of vessels in kidney because of high blood sugar level. Over a time, if not treated it may lead to kidney failure, also known as chronic kidney disease. It may not show any symptoms in the beginning, over a time it can lead to swelling in legs, vomiting and sleeping difficultly.
Hypoglycemia : It can be occur in diabetic people, who used to take insulin injections and medicines to lower their blood sugar level. It can cause dizziness, sweating, weakness and more. If hypoglycaemia not treated, it can convert into more severe symptoms such as loss of consciousness, seizures and may death in some cases.
Cardiovascular Disease : Due to high blood sugar level, blood vessels can be damage and increase the risk of building up plaque, which can restrict the flow of blood and oxygen to the heart. Overall it increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.
Foot damage : Due to the high blood sugar level small blood vessels can be damaged in foot area that supply oxygen and nutrients, this condition is known as diabetic neuropathy. This results in numbness, tingling and pain in legs or feet. In some cases it affect the nerves that controls various body functions such as movement, sensation etc.
How type 1 diabetes diagnosed?
The following steps are involved in the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes :
- Blood tests : Blood test are usually taken to measure the blood sugar level in the blood.
- Symptoms and medical history : The doctor may ask about your family history of diabetes and they may also ask for some common symptoms of type 1 diabetes such as blurred vision, fatigue, skin infections, frequent Urination, vomiting, increased hunger, slow healing etc.
- Urine tests : Urine test can be used to measure the level of glucose in urine, which may be a sign of diabetes.
- Physical examination : The doctors which check heart rate, high blood pressure and increased thirst as a sign of diabetes.
How to manage diabetes ?
Managing diabetes is important for maintaining good health and to prevent some serious complications like kidney damage, cardiovascular disease etc .
- Maintain a healthy diet : Diabetic people should eat more vegetables, fruits, whole grains and lean protein. Avoid saturated fats, sugary and processed food and limit your alcohol intake.
- Monitor your blood sugar regularly : Monitoring blood sugar level regularly is very important to understand how your body responds to different foods, medications and activities.
- Manage stress : Stress is harmful for diabetic people, because it can raise your blood sugar level. So it is very important to control stress by performing some relaxation techniques like yoga, deep breathing and meditation.
- Exercise regularly : Performing exercises have multiple benefits, it helps to lower blood sugar level, help with weight management, improve cardiovascular health and also improves insulin sensitivity. It is recommended to perform physical activities at-least 30 min a day.
- Take medication as prescribed : Take medicine as your doctor recommended to manage diabetes. Don’t skip and change your medicines without consulting your doctor.